Karyotypic abnormalities are of dominant importance in AML risk prognostication and therapy selection. A comprehensive description of subchromosomal genomic copy number changes and allele status together with gene mutation analysis and identification of chromosomal translocations is needed to fully harvest the prognostic and biological power of genomic changes in AML.
We have analyzed DNA from 96 AML-derived pure blast populations (purified using column-based multi parameter negative selection followed by multi-gated FACS sorting) compared with paired buccal DNA using the Affymetrix 6.0 SNP platform. To support data analysis and display, we have developed the software tools PLUT and LOH tool version 2 and have refined dChipSNP. Data were supplemented with blast karyotypes and mutation status of Flt3, NPM1, p53, N-ras and K-ras.
Results: AML cases carried between zero and thirty-four subchromosomal losses and gains. Approximately 23% of all cases had ≥3 subchromosomal lesions and approximately 50% of all cases had no such lesions. Of the 22 cases with complex and hypercomplex genomic changes by SNP profiling, ~50% had mutations in p53 exons 5–9 and ~50% were p53 wild-type by sequence analysis. Monoallelic deletion of p53 as part of various deletions at 17p was found in 7 of 96 (7%) cases. Importantly, 7/96=7% additional cases demonstrated UPD at 17p which spanned the p53 locus. Of all 14/96=15% of cases with LOH at 17p (with and without copy loss) 9/14=64% carried p53 mutations and 11/14=79% had complex karyotypes. Of the AML cases with NPM1 mutations (19 of 96 cases or 20%), 75% carried no detectable subchromosomal lesions, while 25% carried between 1 and 4 such lesions.
Previously unidentified microdeletions resulting in monoallelic NF1 loss were identified on 17p in a total of 10 of 96 (10%) cases, thus suggesting activation of the Ras pathway independent of Ras mutations (all affected cases had wild-type N-ras and K-ras) in a substantial subset of AML cases. Mutational analysis of all coding exons of NF1 on the retained allele in the affected cases is ongoing.
Additional recurrent microdeletions were identified on chromosomes 3p and 3q as well as 12p, the latter encompassing the genes ETV6 and p27, as previously reported.
Finally, analysis of the prognostically and therapeutically important deletions 5q and 7q identified large deletions without recurrent microdeletions. Regions of minimal loss on 5q have been delineated.
Disclosures: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.