Introduction: Immune Receptor Expressed by Myeloid Cells (IREM-1), a member of the CD300L gene family, is an inhibitory receptor expressed by myeloid cells. We reported the characterization of IREM-1 expression in AML blasts and demonstrated the therapeutic potential of IREM-1 specific mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against AML blasts through complement-dependent cytotoxicity assays. Here we present our latest expression and in vivo studies to further evaluate the potential of IREM-1 for antibody-mediated AML therapy.
Methods: High affinity mAbs to IREM-1 were generated with Kd values in low nM range. For in vivo models, the IREM-1 chimeric (huIgG1) monoclonal antibody D12 was generated. In these models, growth of established tumors in an HL-60 xenograft model in nude mice was monitored upon dosing with anti-IREM1 mAb. Immunohistochemistry (IHC, Discovery, Ventana Medical Systems) or flow cytometry (FC, FACSCalibur, BD Bioscience) were performed using MAbs (Alexa-488 conjugated for FC).
Results: We compared the expression of IREM-1 and CD33 in normal human peripheral blood (n=10) by flow cytometry. Both molecules are expressed in monocytes, dendritic cells and granulocytes, while no expression in lymphocytes was observed. The expression pattern of CD33 was similar to the IREM-1 pattern. IHC staining also demonstrated the expression of IREM-1 in AML and normal bone marrow. Flow cytometry indicated IREM-1 was expressed in 37/52 (71.2%) of AML cases with a range of positive blasts from 20–99% (mean 72.1%). The IREM-1 chimeric monoclonal antibody D12 showed antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity activity against IREM-1 transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells with EC50 at 65 ng/ml. Antibody-mediated IREM-1 internalization was observed in both transfected cells as well as AML cell lines. In an HL-60 AML xenograft model, anti-tumor activity of D12 antibody delayed tumor growth by 40%.
Conclusion: Our results further confirm IREM-1 as a cell surface antigen expressed in majority of AML cases and IREM-1 has a similar expression pattern as CD33 among normal blood specimen. Our high affinity chimeric monoclonal antibody against IREM-1 showed anti-tumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. IREM-1 internalization upon antibody engagement also identifies IREM-1 as a suitable target antigen for toxin-conjugated antibody therapy. Taken together, this study supports the rationale for further development of anti-IREM-1 D12 as an immunotherapeutic agent in AML.
Disclosures: Zhao:Nuvelo Inc.,: Work at Cleveland Clinic described in this abstract is sponsored by Nuvelo Inc.,. Korver:Nuvelo Inc.,: Employment. Singh:Nuvelo Inc.,: Employment. Pardoux:Nuvelo Inc.,: Employment. Hsi:Nuvelo Inc.,: Work at Cleveland Clinic described in this abstract is sponsored by Nuvelo Inc.,. Abo:Nuvelo Inc.,: Employment.