Objective: Cord blood is widely used as a third possible stem cell source for allogeneic transplantation following bone marrow and peripheral blood. CBT has unique characteristics such as allowing 2 loci mismatch and emergency use or ready to use transplantation. Reduced-intensity transplantation also has been widely accepted to offer opportunities for allogeneic transplant for older and poor overall status patients. We previously showed the feasibility of reduced-intensity cord blood transplantation (RI-CBT) in 30 patients with advanced hematological diseases. Then performed more than 300 time RI-CBT to those whom needed urgent transplantation without suitable HLA matched donors.
Methods: We retrospectively analyzed medical records of 318 times and 287 cases of RI-CBT from 1/1/2004 to 5/7/2008 in Toranomon Hospital. Disease distribution of 287 studied patients was as follows; acute myeloblastic leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome was 136 cases, malignant lymphoma 58, acute lymphoblastic leukemia 42, adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma 25, severe aplastic anemia 8 and others 18. A mean age was 56 ranging from 19 to 79 years old. The number of high risk and standard status patients were 243 and 44, respectively. High risk disease status is defined as residual uncontrolable tumor cells despite of chemotherapy such as primary refractory and beyond CR1 and standard risk is as in remission in a meaning of tumor control. MDS and SAA patients who need frequent transfusions and intensive care for infection are defined as standard risk. Preparative regimen mainly composed of fludarabine 25 mg/m2 on days -7 to -3, melphalan 80 mg/m2 on day -2, and 4 Gy total body irradiation on day -1. Some patients were contiditioned with iv-busulfan without TBI. Graft-versus- host disease prophylaxis was composed of cyclosporine or tacrolimus alone.
Results: We analyzed the association of various factors on engraftment in possible 158 patients. Eighty eight % (95% CI, 83%–93%) of patients were engrafted on a median days of 20 (range, 11–55 days) after transplant. Multivariate analysis revealed 5 to 6 antigen match in GVH direction was a significant independent factor for engraftment as well as CD34 dose, while HLA in HVG direction did not significantly influence on engraftment. Three-year estimated overall survival (OS) in total 287 cases was 39.6% (95% CI: 33.5–45.8%). Standard risk patients (n=44) showed 3-year OS of 53.8% (95% CI: 38.3–69.2%) and high risk (n=243) was 26.3% (95% CI:20.2–32.5%). Tacrolimus GVHD prophylaxis group (n=159) had superior 3y-OS of 33.8%(95% CI: 25.9–41.8) to cyclosporine alone with 3yOS of 22.4 % (95% CI: 14.2–30.7). We previously reported pre-engraftment immune reaction characterized by high-grade fever and weight gain and developed on a median of day 9. More intensive immune suppression after RI-CBT using tacrolimus decreased the incidence and severity of PIR and increased OS.
Conclusion: RI-CBT is a feasible approach even for relatively aged patient population (Mean age=56) with advanced hematological malignancies.
Disclosures: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.