Abstract

Background: Current therapy in adult systemic mastocytosis (SM) includes observation alone, topical therapy for cutaneous disease, symptomatic non-cytoreductive therapy and cytoreductive therapy. The latter involves several drugs whose individual merit in the treatment of SM has not been well characterized.

Patients and Methods: Diagnosis of SM was according to the 2001 WHO criteria (World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues, p 1–351. Lyon, France: IARC Press; 2001). Response to cytoreductive therapy was assessed by consensus criteria (

Eur J Clin Invest.
2007
;
37
:
435
). The study population was selected from a series of 342 adult SM patients referred to our institution and seen between 1964 and 2008. KITD816V mutation analysis was performed by DNA sequencing.

Results: A total of 134 study patients received treatment that included at least one cytoreductive drug as either first-line (n=105) or second-line (n=29) therapy. Interferon-alpha with or without prednisone (n=58), hydroxyurea (n=43), imatinib mesylate (n=42) and 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (n=26) were the most frequently used cytoreductive agents accounting for 120 of the 134 study cases; the remaining 14 patients received other cytoreductive drugs, none of which were effective. i. Interferon-alfa (IFN-a) with or without prednisone IFN-a with or without prednisone (24 and 34 patients, respectively) was given to 12 patients with indolent SM (ISM), 14 aggressive SM (ASM), and 32 SM with associated clonal hematological non-mast cell lineage disease (SM-AHNMD). For all 58 patients receiving therapy, complete (CR), major (MR), and partial (PR) response/regression were achieved in 3, 7, and 14 patients, respectively, for an overall response rate (ORR) of 41%. ORR in ISM, ASM, and SM-AHNMD was 50%, 43%, and 38%, respectively. Median duration of response was 12 months (range, 1–117 months). Anemia and elevated ESR were significantly associated with inferior ORR; 29% vs. 56% (p=0.04) and 14% vs. 57% (p=0.01), respectively. BM detection of KITD816V did not appear to affect response rates (p=0.4). ii. Hydroxyurea (HU) HU was given to 2 ASM, 40 SM-AHNMD and 1 mast cell leukemia (MCL) patients. The drug was used as first-line therapy in 30 patients. MR and PR were achieved in 1 and 8 SM-AHNMD patients, respectively (ORR=21%). Median duration of response was 37 months (range, 5–84 months). iii. Imatinib mesylate (IM) in patients with SM and associated eosinophilia IM was given to 22 SM patients who had associated eosinophilia (SM-eos): 2 had ISM, 2 ASM, and 18 SM-AHNMD. The drug was used as first-line therapy in 9 patients. Ten of the 22 patients with SM-eos were known to harbor the FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion mutation and all responded to IM (ORR=100%). None of 5 FIP1L1-PDGFRA-negative SM-eos patients had a response to IM. In the remaining 7 patients with unknown mutation status, 4 patients had a response to IM (1 CR, 1 MR, and 2 PR). iv. IM in patients with SM not associated with eosinophilia IM was administered to 20 SM patients without associated eosinophilia (7 ISM, 2 ASM, 10 SM-AHNMD, and 1 MCL). Response was documented in 4 (20%) patients (1 CR, 1 MR, and 2 PR) including 1 with ISM, 2 with ASM and 1 with SM-AHNMD. Median duration of response was 19.5 months (range, 9–69 months). Two patients developed interstitial pneumonitis. v. 2-Chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA) 2-CdA was given to 10 ISM, 3 ASM, and 13 SM-AHNMD patients; the drug was used as first-line therapy in 8 patients. CR, MR and PR were achieved in 1, 7, and 4 patients, respectively (ORR=46%). ORR in ISM, ASM, and SM-AHNMD was 50%, 33%, and 46%, respectively. Median duration of response was 11 months (range, 3–74 months). Presence of leukocytosis (WBC > 10 x 109/L), monocytosis (absolute monocyte count > 0.9 x 109/L) or circulating immature myeloid cells was significantly associated with inferior response; 13% vs. 61% (p=0.02); 11% vs. 69% (p=0.006) and 0% vs. 71%, (p=0.001), respectively. Response was not affected by BM detection of KITD816V (p=1.0).

Conclusions: Both IFN-a and 2-CdA are reasonable treatment options, with comparable efficacy, for symptomatic SM including the subcategories of ISM, ASM and SM-AHNMD. IFN-a response was significantly better in the absence of anemia or elevated ESR. 2-CdA response was similarly better in the absence of leukocytosis, monocytosis or circulating immature myeloid cells. The therapeutic value of IM was limited to FIP1L1-PDGFRA-positive disease.

Disclosures: Off Label Use: Hydroxyurea, Interferon, Imatinib, and 2-Chlorodeoxyadenosine for the treatment of systemic mastocytosis.

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