Abstract

Table 1. Samples to p53 deletions

 p53deletion 
 FISH aCGH FISH and aCGH 
MGUS 142 
SMM 108 
Newly diagnosed MM 182 
Relapsed/refractory MM 62 156 19 
HMCLs 48 
Total 312 386 19 
 p53deletion 
 FISH aCGH FISH and aCGH 
MGUS 142 
SMM 108 
Newly diagnosed MM 182 
Relapsed/refractory MM 62 156 19 
HMCLs 48 
Total 312 386 19 

Background: Inactivation of p53 by mutation or allelic loss is a rare event in multiple myeloma (MM) at the time of disease diagnosis and believed to be more common in the late stages of the disease. Here we defined the prevalence of p53 deletions in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM), newly diagnosed MM, relapsed MM and human myeloma cell lines (HMCLs). Indirect mechanisms of p53 inactivation such as amplification of MDM2, or deletion of CDKN2A (p14ARF) were also investigated.

Patients and Methods: A total of 631 MM samples and 48 HMCLs were analyzed for p53 abnormalities (Table 1) and compared with a cohort of plasma cell leukemia (PCL) previously published by us. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and highresolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) were used to detect p53 deletions. MDM2 amplification and p14ARF loss were evaluated by aCGH. Overall survival (OS) was estimated through Kaplan Meier method.

Results: The prevalence of p53 deletions was 1.4%, 3.7%, 8.9%, 20% and 87.5% in MGUS, SMM, newly diagnosed MM, relapsed MM and HMCLs respectively (Figure 1). Of interest patients in first relapse showed a p53 deletion prevalence of 18% in comparison with 33% for patients in second relapse or more. We obtained p53 deletion status in 8 patients noted to have deletion at the time of relapse and in whom we had previous samples stored. In 7 of 8 cases deletions had been acquired (absent in the previous samples). The median OS for relapsed MM patients with or without p53 deletion were 4.2 months and 37.8 months respectively (p <0.001). MDM 2 amplification and p14ARF loss was detected in 0.4% and 2% of new diagnosed MM, 0.6% and 5.1% of relapsed MM and 2% and 29% of HMCLs respectively.

Discussion: Emergence of p53 deletion/mutations denotes progression genetic events in MM. Importantly we show for the first time the overriding importance of p53 deletions as prognostic markers in relapsed MM. A molecular staging system that is based on the presence of p53 inactivation may be more powerful than classifying patients based on the loss of p53. Other abnormalities involving p53 pathway regulators like MDM2 gain and p14ARF loss are infrequent events in MM, even in advanced disease.

Figure 1.

Prevalence of p53 deletions

Figure 1.

Prevalence of p53 deletions

Disclosures: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare

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