Abstract

A randomized study had been performed between December 2001 and December 2005 to assess the optimal post remission therapy for adult AML in the first CR. The updated results are here presented, after a median follow-up of 48 months. JALSG AML201 enrolled 1064 previously untreated AML patients (pts) aged 15–64 yrs. The induction therapy consisted of cytarabine (Ara-C 100 mg/m2 day1–7) and idarubicin (IDR 12 mg/m2 day1–3) (arm A) or cytarabine (100 mg/m2 day1–7) and daunorubicin (DNR 50 mg/m2 day1–5) (arm B). If the patients did not achieve remission after the first induction therapy, then the same therapy was given once more. Pts were categorized into good, intermediate or poor risk groups by risk factors based on the criteria established in previous JALSG AML studies (Miyawaki et al. Cancer 2005). All CR pts were stratified according to the induction, the number of courses of induction, age and karyotype and were randomly assigned to the high dose Ara-C (HDAC) post remission regimen (arm C) or the conventional JALSG post remission regimen (arm D). Arm C: the three courses of HDAC which consisted of Ara-C 2.0 g/m2 q12h day1–5, arm D: the first course consisted of Ara-C 200 mg/m2 day1–5+ mitoxantrone (MIT) 7 mg/m2 day1–3, 2) Ara-C 200 mg/m2 day1–5+ DNR 50 mg/m2 day1–3, 3) Ara-C 200 mg/m2 day1–5+ aclarubicin (ACR) 20 mg/m2 day15, 4) Ara-C 200 mg/m2 day1–5+ etoposide (ETP) 100 mg/m2 day1–5 + vincristine (VCR) 0.8 mg/m2 day 8 + vindesine (VDS) 2 mg/m2 day10.

Results: Of the 1064 pts registered, 1057 pts (median age: 47 years) were evaluable. 823 pts (78%) achieved CR after one or two courses of induction therapy. Of the 823 pts in CR, 781 pts were assigned to arm C (n=389) or arm D (n=392). The 5-year OS rate of arm C was 57.8% while that of arm D was 55.9% (p=0.96). The 5-year RFS rate of the CR pts was 42.7% in arm C and 38.9% in arm D (p=0.73). Among the good risk group (n=155), the 5-year OS rate of arm C was 69.9% while that of arm D was 80.5 % (p=0.11), and the 5-year RFS rate of arm C was 54.5% while that of arm D was 55.7% (p=0.53). Among the intermediate risk group (n=439), the 5-year OS rate of arm C was 50.9% while that of arm D was 48.5% (p=0.59), and the 5-year RFS rate of arm C was 41.5% while that of arm D was 36.5% (p=0.50). Among the poor risk group (n=49), the 5-year OS rate of arm C was 12.9% while that of arm D was 17.2% (p=0.58), and the 5-year RFS rate of arm C was 14.3% while that of arm D was 15.5% (p=0.78). In the CBF leukemia group (n=218), the 5-year OS rate of arm C was 75.0% while that of arm D was 65.8% (p=0.17), and the 5-year RFS rate of arm C was 56.5% while that of arm D was 38.7% (p=0.05). Among the young group (<50yrs) (n=467), the 5-year OS rate of arm C was 62.1% while that of arm D was 66.4% (p=0.23), and the 5-year RFS rate of arm C was 44.6% while that of arm D was 45.6% (p=0.59). Among the old group (>=50 yrs) (n=314), the 5-year OS rate of arm C was 51.3% while that of arm D was 40.1% (p=0.16), and the 5-year RFS rate of arm C was 40.0% while that of arm D was 28.1% (p=0.23). After all of consolidation, the lowest WBC count and the duration of neutropenia in arm C were significantly lower and longer than those in arm D. There was a higher rate of documented infection in arm C (20.9%) than in arm D (14.5%) (p< 0.001).

Conclusion: The conventional post remission therapeutic regimen established by JALSG consisting of 4 courses of consolidation was found to be as effective as the three courses of HDAC therapy. HDAC therapy produced a slightly positive effect on RFS in only the CBF leukemia group.

Disclosures: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

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