Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) following allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) can be a curative treatment for patients with hematological malignancies. The therapeutic benefit of DLI is attributed to a graft versus leukemia (GvL) reactivity mediated by donor T cells recognizing allo-antigens on malignant cells of the patient. Donor T cells, however, often recognize allo-antigens which are broadly expressed in non-malignant tissues of the patient, thereby causing severe graft versus host disease (GvHD). In contrast to HLA class I molecules which are ubiquitously expressed on all nucleated cells, HLA class II molecules are predominantly expressed on cells of the hematopoietic system, and therefore CD4+ T cells may selectively mediate GvL reactivity without GvHD. Several clinical studies have indeed demonstrated that CD8-depleted DLI after alloSCT can lead to clinical remissions with reduced incidence of GvHD. Since in most of these studies DLI was contaminated with CD8+ T cells, it remained unclear whether CD4+ T cells alone are capable of mediating GvL reactivity. To assess the capacity of purified CD4+ T cells to solely exert GvL reactivity we compared the anti-tumor effects of CD4+ DLI and CD3+ DLI in a NOD/SCID mouse model of human acute leukemia. Iv injection of primary human leukemic cells from three different patients reproducibly resulted in engraftment of leukemia in mice, as monitored by peripheral blood analysis. Three weeks after inoculation of leukemic cells, established tumors were treated by infusion of human donor T cells. In mice treated with CD4+ DLI (5*106 CD4+ T cells), the emergence of activated (HLA-DR+) T cells coincided with rapid disappearance of leukemic cells, showing similar kinetics as for CD3+ DLI (consisting of 5*106 CD4+ T cells and 3*106 CD8+ T cells). To analyze the specific reactivity of T cells responsible for the anti-leukemic effect, we clonally isolated human CD45+ T cells during the anti-tumor response following CD4+ DLI in which the donor was matched for HLA class I and mismatched for the HLA-DR (DRB1*1301), -DQ (DQB1*0603) and –DP (DPB1*0301/0401) alleles of the patient. A total number of 134 CD4+ T cell clones were isolated expressing various different TCR Vbeta chains. Most of the isolated CD4+ T cell clones (84%) were shown to be alloreactive, as determined by differential recognition of patient and donor EBV-transformed B cells (EBV-LCL) in IFN-g ELISA. A substantial number of these CD4+ T cell clones also exerted cytolytic activity (17%), as demonstrated by specific reactivity with patient EBV-LCL but not donor EBV-LCL in a 10 hr 51Cr-release cytotoxicity assay. Further characterization of the specificity of 20 CD4+ T cell clones using blocking studies with HLA class II specific monoclonal antibodies illustrated HLA class II restricted recognition directed against HLA-DR (n=3), HLA-DQ (n=16) and HLA-DP (n=1) molecules of the patient. Of the 127 alloreactive CD4+ T cell clones, only 36 clones directly recognized primary leukemic cells of the patient. Flowcytometric analysis demonstrated that HLA class II, and in particular HLA-DQ, molecules were expressed at relatively low levels on patient leukemic cells as compared to patient EBV-LCL. Upregulation of HLA class II and costimulatory molecules on patient leukemic cells upon differentiation in vitro into leukemic antigen presenting cells (APC) resulted in recognition of patient leukemic cells by all alloreactive CD4+ T cell clones. Therefore, we hypothesize that the alloreactive CD4+ T cells have been induced in vivo by patient leukemic cells, which, upon interaction with T cells or other environmental factors, acquired an APC phenotype. In conclusion, our data show that alloreactive CD4+ T cells can be potent effector cells and sole mediators of strong antitumor responses in a NOD/SCID mouse model for human acute leukemia.
Disclosures: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.