Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a lethal hematological malignancy with an incidence of 40–60 per 1.000.000 per year. Over the last decade, the most significant therapeutic improvement has been the introduction of high-dose Melphalan therapy in combination with autologous stem cell support. This strategy has led to an increase in survival from a median of approximately 3 years till now >6 years also in Denmark (unpublished data from Nordic Myeloma Study Group, NMSG #7/98). Despite this important increase in survival, substantial variability still persists among patients in response to high-dose Melphalan. Clinical and genetic heterogeneity is a characteristic feature of MM, and new methodological approaches, such as global gene expression profiling (GEP), are valuable tools in order to link clinical endpoints, such as response to treatment and survival, with the molecular and genetic heterogeneity of the disease (
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