Abstract

This retrospective study was designed to determine the prevalence of inherited prothrombotic risk factors (Factor V Leiden (FV) G1691A and prothrombin G20210A mutations, TT677 genotype of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), protein C, protein S, antithrombin deficiencies) in a population of children with ALL treated according to the FRALLE 2000 study Protocol (High Risk and Standard Risk groups). The study was performed in 5 French Centers including Amiens, Angers, Paris Trousseau, Rouen and Saint-Etienne. From December 2000 to March 2006, 354 children aged 1 to 18 years old were consecutively admitted for ALL and were enrolled in the FRALLE 2000 Protocol. Among them, 281 patients were investigated for hereditary prothrombotic defects at the time of ALL diagnosis. Informed parental consent was required for gene analysis. Abnormal test results for protein S (functional activity and free protein S antigen concentration), protein C and antithrombin were controlled on a second blood sample after induction. In the population studied, the prevalence of one established prothrombotic risk factor was 19,2%: the FV G1691A mutation was diagnosed in 10 patients (3.6%), all heterozygous, 10 patients (3.6%) showed the heterozygous prothrombin G20210A mutation, the TT677 MTHFR genotype was found in 34 children (12.7%), 1 patient showed protein C deficiency (0.4%). No antithrombin deficiency was detected. The prevalence of inherited protein S deficiency could not be evaluated because of missing data in the family medical history. Combined prothrombotic defects were found in 2 patients (0.71%): heterozygous FV G1691A mutation combined with heterozygous prothrombin G20210A mutation in 1 patient and combined with TT677 MTHFR genotype in the second patient. Except for TT677 MTHFR genotype, the prevalence of hereditary prothrombotic risk factors in children with ALL in France were found within the prevalence reported for children treated for ALL (table 1) and comparable to the prevalence in healthy Europeans (Junker et al. 1999, Margaglione et al 2001, Mueller et al. 2005).

Comparison of the prevalence of inherited prothrombotic risk factors in children with ALL

CountryPopulationFV G1691A +/− ++PT G20210A +/− +/+MTHFR TT677ATPC
AT: antithrombin deficiency ; PC: protein C deficiency ; NE : non evaluated 
NowakGöttl et al 1999 (n=301) Germany ALL children 5.3% 0.3% 2% 0% 7.7% 0.7% 2.3% 
Mauz-Körholz et al. 2000 (n=108) Germany ALL children 5.6% 0% 2.8% 0% 5.6% 0% 2.7% 
Mitchell et al. 2002 (n=60) Canada ALL children 3.3% 0% 2% 0% NE NE NE 
Present study (n=281) France ALL children 3.6% 0% (n=277) 3.6% 0%(n=279) 2.7% (n=268) 0% 0.4% 
CountryPopulationFV G1691A +/− ++PT G20210A +/− +/+MTHFR TT677ATPC
AT: antithrombin deficiency ; PC: protein C deficiency ; NE : non evaluated 
NowakGöttl et al 1999 (n=301) Germany ALL children 5.3% 0.3% 2% 0% 7.7% 0.7% 2.3% 
Mauz-Körholz et al. 2000 (n=108) Germany ALL children 5.6% 0% 2.8% 0% 5.6% 0% 2.7% 
Mitchell et al. 2002 (n=60) Canada ALL children 3.3% 0% 2% 0% NE NE NE 
Present study (n=281) France ALL children 3.6% 0% (n=277) 3.6% 0%(n=279) 2.7% (n=268) 0% 0.4% 

Author notes

Disclosure: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.