Abstract

HIV-1 replication is induced by the excess of iron and iron chelation by desferrioxamine (DFO) inhibits viral replication in HIV-1 infected CEM T cells [1]. Treatment of cells with DFO or 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone inhibits expression of proteins that regulate cell-cycle progression, including cycle-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) [2]. HIV-1 transcription is activated by Tat protein, which recruits transcriptional co-activators to the HIV-1 promoter. Elongation of HIV-1 transcription is mediated by the interaction of HIV Tat with host cell cycle-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9)/cyclin T1, which phosphorylates the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II. Our recent studies showed that CDK2 participates in HIV-1 transcription by phosphorylating Tat [3]. Thus inhibition of CDK2 by iron chelators might present a new approach to inhibit HIV-1 transcription. We evaluated the effect of a clinically approved orally effective iron chelator, 4-[3,5-bis-(hydroxyphenyl) -1,2,4-triazol-1-yl]-benzoic acid (ICL670 or deferasirox) on HIV-1 transcription. ICL670 inhibited Tat-induced HIV-1 transcription in CEM, 293T and HeLa cells at concentrations that did not induce cytotoxicity. The chelator decreased cellular activity of CDK2 but not its protein level and reduced HIV-1 Tat phosphorylation by CDK2. ICL670 did not decrease CDK9 protein level but significantly reduced association of CDK9 with cyclin T1 and reduced phosphorylation of Ser-2 residues of RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain. In conclusion, our findings add to the evidence that iron chelators may inhibit HIV-1 transcription by deregulating CDK2 and Cdk9. Further consideration should be given to the evaluation of ICL670 for future anti-retroviral therapeutics and to the development of iron chelators specifically as anti-retroviral agents.

References

References
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Author notes

Disclosure: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.