The association of agranulocytosis with the use of many different drugs has been documented. LATIN is a case-control study designed to identify risk factors for agranulocytosis and aplastic anemia, including drugs, and to estimate the incidence rates of both diseases in some Latin American countries. This report will cover just agranulocytosis. In 4 years, 52 cases of agranulocytosis were diagnosed. The overall incidence rate was 0.38 cases per 1 million inhabitant-years (0.35 for Brazil, 2.09 for Argentina, and no case verified in Monterrey, Mexico). Agranulocytosis patients more often took medications already associated with agranulocytosis than controls (76.7% of cases and 52.5% of controls; OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.3–12.5; p = 0.01), the most important being methimazole (OR 44.2, 95% CI 6.8 to infinite). The population attributable risk percent (etiologic fraction) was 56%. The use of nutrients supplements was more frequent among agranulocytosis patients than controls (p = 0.03). The agranulocytosis incidence in Latin America was lower than that of European countries and Israel. The rarity of the disease indicates that it is not a public health problem, and there is no reason for major protection measures other than improving diagnostic tools and making earlier agranulocytosis diagnosis.

Author notes

Disclosure: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.