Approximately half of the patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) harbor occult disease during therapy, leading to overt relapse. Novel treatments are needed to advance cure rates. AML cells are sensitive to natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity if they express HLA Class I molecules that do not bind killer-inhibitory receptors (KIR) on NK cells. The demonstration that haploidentical NK cells can expand in vivo and exert anti-AML activity when infused after non-myeloablative conditioning (
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