Factor VIII functions as a cofactor for factor IXa in the anionic phospholipid surface-dependent conversion of factor X to Xa. It is well-known that the A2 and A3 domains of factor VIII interact with the catalytic domain and EGF2 domain of factor IXa, respectively. Recently, Furie et al. have reported that the Gla domain of factor IXa (factor IXa-GD) interacts with the light chain of factor VIII. However, the factor IXa-GD-interactive site on the light chain remained to be investigated. In the current study, the recombinant C2 (rC2) domain of factor VIII was prepared using a yeast secretion system. ELISA-based assay in the absence of phospholipid showed the Glu-Gly-Arg-active site modified factor IXa (EGR-factor IXa) bound to the immobilized rC2 domain dose-dependently, and the binding ability was maximum under the condition of 150 mM NaCl/1 mM CaCl2. This binding was competitively inhibited by the addition of excess of factor VIII or rC2 domain, supporting the specificity of this interaction. Furthermore, the presence of high ionic strength and the metal-ion chelator EDTA blocked this binding by ∼95 and ∼75%, respectively. Surface plasmon resonance-based assay showed that the binding affinity (Kd) of rC2 domain for EGR-factor IXa was 108 ± 15.5 nM. GD less-factor IXa, deleting the GD completely, failed to bind to rC2 domain. A monoclonal antibody against factor IXa-GD specific for calcium-dependent conformation (mAbIXa-GD) also inhibited (∼ 95%) the rC2 domain binding to EGR-factor IXa in a dose-dependent manner (IC50; 758 nM), suggesting the authentic of the C2 domain and factor IXa-GD interaction. The addition of rC2 domain or mAbIXa-GD inhibited the factor IXa-catalyzed factor X activation with factor VIIIa in the absence of phospholipid (IC50; 15.7 μM or 43.2 nM, respectively), whilst both any little affected in the absence of factor VIIIa. In addition, the ∼8-kDa C2 fragment obtained by V8 protease digestion (residues 2182–2259) bound directly to EGR-factor IXa. Taken together, these results indicate that factor VIII C2 domain directly interacts with factor IXa-GD via both the electrostatic- and calcium-dependent interactions. Furthermore, our results provide the first evidence for an essential role of the C2 domain in the association between factor VIII and factor IXa in the factor Xase complex.

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