Amplifications involving chromosome 1q and deletions involving 1p are frequent events in multiple myeloma (MM). The pathogenesis and clinical significance of these anomalies is largely unknown but CKS1B amplification at 1q21 detected in 30–40% of MM patients is associated with disease progression. As karyotyping and SNP based mapping analysis identify a minimal common deletion region involving the 1p21 locus, we used FISH combined with cytoplasmic light chain detection (cIg-FISH) to investigate the prevalence and prognostic significance of del(1p21) in a cohort of 186 MM patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplant. CIg-FISH detected hemizygous 1p21 deletions in 18% of the cases. The median percentage of clonal plasma cells harboring del(1p21) was 55% (range 20–95%). The presence of 1p21 deletions was strongly correlated with CKS1B amplification (p=0.004), t(4;14) (p= 0.027), and del(p53) (p=0.04), but not with del(13q) or t(11;14). There was no association between del (1p21) and other biological factors including age, gender, Hb, albumin, C-reactive protein, beta-2 microglobulin level, isotype or bone marrow plasmacytosis. Patients with 1p21 deletions had significantly shorter progression-free (median 10.5 vs. 25.4 months, p=0.0001) and overall survivals (median 33.9 months vs. not reached, p=0.001) than those without such deletions. On multivariate analysis, del(1p21) was an independent risk factor for progression free (p< 0.0001) and overall survivals (p=0.0005) after adjusting for other genetic risk factors including del(13q), del(p53), t(4;14) and CKS1B amplification. Our results indicate that del(1p21) is a novel genetic risk factor and warrant inclusion of this genetic aberration in the risk-stratification of MM. Further studies are required to identify candidate tumor suppressor gene(s) at the 1p21 locus and explore their role in the molecular pathogenesis of MM.

Author notes

Disclosure:Research Funding: Cancer Research Society, Leukemia and Lymphoma Society of Canada.