The biologic mechanisms of the development of central nervous system (CNS) involvement in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is unknown. Risk factors associated with CNS involvement include the immunophenotype (e.g. T-ALL), high white blood cell (WBC) count and cytokine expression. Among the latter, interleukin (IL)-15 has shown to enhance the proliferation of both normal and malignant lymphocytes, thus, suggesting its potential role in leukemogenesis. It has been shown that in childhood ALL, CNS involvement is associated with higher IL-15 expression (
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