Abstract

ADAMTS13, a member of A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease with ThromboSpondin type 1 repeats (ADAMTS) family, is mainly synthesized in the hepatic stellate cells, endothelial cells and megakaryocytes or platelets. It controls the sizes of von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimers by cleaving VWF at the Tyr1605-Met1606 bond. Genetic deficiency of plasma ADAMTS13 activity results in hereditary thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), also named Upshaw-Schülman syndrome. To develop a potential gene therapy approach and to determine the domains of ADAMTS13 required for recognition and cleavage of VWF in vivo, a self-inactivating lentiviral vector encoding human wild-type ADAMTS13 or variant truncated after the spacer domain (construct MDTCS) was administrated by intra-amniotic injection on embryonic day 8. Direct stereomicroscopy and immunofluorescent microscopic analysis revealed that the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter, ADAMTS13 and MDTCS were predominantly expressed in the heart, kidneys and skin. The synthesized ADAMTS13 and truncated variant were detectable in mouse plasma by immunoprecipitation and Western blot, as well as by proteolytic cleavage of FRETS-VWF73 substrate. The levels of proteolytic activity in plasma of mice expressing ADAMTS13 and MDTCS were 5 ± 7% and 60 ± 70%, respectively using normal human plasma as a standard, and this proteolytic activity persisted for at least 24 weeks in Adamts13/mice and 42 weeks in wild-type mice tested (the duration of observation). The mice expressing both recombinant ADAMTS13 and MDTCS showed a significantly decreased ratio of plasma VWF collagen-binding activity to antigen and a reduction in VWF multimer sizes as compared to those in the controls. Moreover, the mice expressing ADAMTS13 and MDTCS showed a significant prolongation of ferric chloride-induced carotid arterial occlusion time (9.0 ± 0.6 and 25.2 ± 3.2 min, respectively) as compared to the Adamts13−/− mice expressing GFP alone (5.6 ± 0.5 min) (p<0.01). The ferric chloride-induced carotid occlusion time in Adamts13−/− mice expressing ADAMTS13 was almost identical to that in wild type mice with same genetic background (C56BL/6) (8.0 ± 0.2 min) (p>0.05). The data demonstrate the correction of the prothrombotic phenotype in Adamts13/mice by gene transfer to the fetus by viral vectors encoding human wild type ADAMTS13 and the carboxyl terminal truncated variant (MDTCS), supporting the feasibility of developing a gene therapy based treatment for hereditary TTP. The discrepancy in the proteolytic activity of MDTCS between in vitro (Zhang P et al. Blood, 2007 in press) and in vivo in the present study suggests the potential cofactors in murine circulation that may rescue the defective proteolytic activity of the carboxyl-terminal truncated ADAMTS13 protease seen in vitro.

Author notes

Disclosure: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.