Abstract

Acute and chronic clinical manifestations of sickle cell disease (SCD) are based on vaso-occlusion and impaired blood flow. Dense erythrocytes are believed to be important contributors to the vaso-occlusive manifestations of SCD. However, the physiological regulation of erythrocyte hydration status in SCD is not entirely clear. The Gardos channel and K/Cl cotransport are major contributors to sickle erythrocyte dehydration. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) on the cell surface catalyzes disulfide formation, causes redox modifications and has been observed to be up-regulated under hypoxic conditions. We now report the detection of PDI in red cells. Western blot analysis revealed a prominent band, migrating at 55 kDa, in ghost preparation from both sickle and normal erythrocytes. To evaluate the role of PDI in Gardos channel activation, we measured charybdotoxin-sensitive K+ influx in the presence of bacitracin, a well-known blocker of PDI activity. When sickle erythrocytes are exposed to bacitracin, Gardos channel activity is significantly reduced (1.4 ±0.2 to 0.8± 0.05 mmol/L cell x min, n=6, P<0.01). We also observed that Gardos channel activity was attenuated by 0.25 mM bacitracin and was maximally inhibited by 3 mM in sickle and normal erythrocytes. Similar results were observed with phenyl arsine oxide and acetyl-thyroxin, two other well-known inhibitors of cell surface PDI activity. We then studied the effects of PDI inhibition on red cell density profiles of sickle and normal human red cells. Analysis of the baseline density profile indicates that erythrocytes have a median density of 1.10 g/mL. This value significantly increased to 1.125 g/mL (n=2) after 3 h of oxygenation/de-oxygenation cycles. However, in the presence of 3 mM bacitracin, the cellular density profile markedly shifted to the left (1.098 g/mL) following deoxygenation/oxygenation. We also investigated the reductive capacity of freshly isolated human erythrocytes by the ferrocyanide-production method. The reductive capacity of normal Hb A red cells was significantly lower than in Hb S containing cells (2.8 ± 1.1 vs 5.1 ± 1.3 mmol/L cell x h, n=18, p<0.0001). Similar results were observed in Santillies and NYKO1, two transgenic mouse models of sickle cell disease, when compared to C57 mice. These results strongly implicate cell surface associated PDI in cellular dehydration and formation of dense sickle erythrocytes by activating K+ efflux via the Gardos channel and suggest that aberrant regulation of PDI activity and/or its expression may contribute to the pathophysiology of Sickle Cell Disease.

Supported by NIH DK069388.

Author notes

Disclosure: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.