Stromal-cell derived factor (SDF)-1α (CXCL12) is a potent chemoattractant for hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) whose chemotactic effect is mediated through the G protein-coupled receptor CXCR4. The expression level of CXCR4 on leukemic blasts is known to be a major prognostic factor in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) because it increases cell retention, survival and growth within the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment, resulting in resistance to conventional chemotherapy. Modulation of CXCR4 expression would be relevant not only in the trafficking of normal HSPC and leukemic cells but also in the response of the latter to chemotherapeutic agents. Previously, we demonstrated that valproic acid (VPA), an effective histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDI) known to induce differentiation in leukemic blasts, increases proliferation, self-renewal and engraftment of normal murine HSPC (
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