Background. We have shown that the risk of transplant mortality (TRM) can be predicted by using laboratory values, on day+7 after an allogeneic hemopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) (Sormani et al, Bone Marrow Transpl.2003). TRM in patients with low, intermediate and high risk on day+7, is 15%, 40% and 69%: increased mortality is mainly, but not exclusively, due to increased acute graft versus host disease (GvHD). In a pilot study we have shown that a small dose of rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (rATG) (Thymoglobulin, Genzyme), was feasible and reduced GvHD and TRM.

Aim of the study. We have therefore opened a randomized trial testing this hypothesis in patient undergoing an unrelated donor HSCT, with rATG (7.5 mg/kg) in the conditioning regimen.

Patients. 170 were eligible: all patients received rATG 3.75 mg/kg x2 pre-transplant, and on day+7 they were scored and randomized to receive an additional dose of rATG (1,25 mg/kg day +7 and day+9) (n=84) or to receive no further treatment (n=86) (control arm). The two groups were balanced for age, disease phase and day+7 score.

Results. The predictive value of day+7 score on TRM was confirmed in the control arm (18% vs 42% for intermediate and high risk patients, p=0.03), whereas in the day+7 ATG arm, there was no difference (29% vs 29%, p=1.0). TRM was overall reduced from 35% in the control arm to 29% in the ATG day+7 arm (p=0.37) : the difference was more pronounced in patients with early disease and high risk on day 7 (35% vs 15% p=0.08). Acute GvHD grade III–IV was reduced overall from 16% to 6% (p=0.04), and chronic GvHD was reduced 32% to 14% (p=0.02). In multivariate COX analysis TRM and overall survival was predicted by risk score day7 and disease phase.

Conclusions. We confirm that patients with different risk of TRM can be identified on day+7 after HSCT. Administration of rATG on day+7 can influence the risk of TRM, by reducing acute and chronic GvHD. Additional intensified supportive care (including anti-infectious therapy) may further reduce TRM in patients with a high risk score on day+7.

Disclosures: Genzyme.; Genzyme.; Educational grant for stem cell donation workshop.; Genzyme.; Genzyme.

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