Abstract

We report a retrospective review of 18 children receiving haplocompatible related donor hematopoietic peripheral blood SCT and consecutively enrolled at four U.S. transplant centers. The median age was 8 yrs (range 1–20). Patients with malignancy (n=13) included: AML-CR1 (primary induction failure, failed cord blood transplant) [1], CR2 [3]; MDS-RA/RARS [2], RAEB [2]; AML and Fanconi anemia [1]; CML-CP2 [1]; ALL-CR3 [2]; NHL-CR2 [1]. Patients with non-malignant diseases included severe aplastic anemia [n=4] and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome [n=1]. Thirteen donors were a 3/6 HLA match and 5 were a 4/6 match. CD34 positive selection was used to select stem cells and deplete T lymphocytes. Conditioning for 13 of the patients consisted of TBI 12–14 Gy in 6 fractions, thiotepa, fludarabine and ATG. Fractionated TBI was replaced by single fraction TBI (n=2) or melphalan (n=3). Cyclophosphamide replaced thiotepa for 1 patient with FA. No post-transplant graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was given. Patients received a median of 18 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg (range 6–28) and 3 × 104 CD3+ cells/kg (range 0.3–11). Sustained primary engraftment occurred in 15/18 (83%) patients. Primary graft failure occurred in one patient. Two patients had immunological rejection following HHV-6 reactivation. Both engrafted after a second transplant; therefore the overall engraftment success was 94%. The median time to an ANC >0.5 × 109/L was 12 days (range 9–21). Platelet recovery occurred in 16/18 at a median of 17 days (range 9–22). Primary (occurring after SCT but prior to DLI) grade II acute GVHD was seen in 4/17 patients (24%). Grade III-IV GVHD was seen in 1 patient (6%) manifest as overlap syndrome in association with HHV-6 reactivation. One pt had primary extensive chronic GVHD. Of nine patients who received DLI and/or stem cell boosts, 4 had grade II GVHD (3/4 had prior acute GVHD), none had grade III-IV GVHD, 2 developed chronic GVHD and 1 developed overlap syndrome. Infections were common but manageable. All patients were at risk for CMV reactivation based on CMV serology: recipient/donor +/+ (9), +/− (3), −/+ (6). Seven patients (39%) reactivated CMV. All cases were responsive to anti-viral therapy and/or DLI. No CMV disease was seen. Seven patients had adenovirus reactivation and 6 had HHV-6 reactivation. EBV reactivation occurred in 5/18 (28%) patients. Rituximab (5) and DLI (2) yielded rapid resolution of EBV in all patients. Four of 13 (31%) at risk patients have relapsed: 1 pt with cytogenetic relapse remains in CR2 > 6 mo later and another who recently relapsed is undergoing salvage therapy. The 100 day and 1 year transplant-related mortality was 11% and 19%, respectively. The overall survival is 72% with a median follow-up of 31 months (range 7–89). Among patients transplanted for malignant diseases (13) and non-malignant diseases (5), overall survival is 69% and 80%, respectively. The K-M 2 year survival was 70% +/− 22%. All survivors were complete donor chimeras by DNA methods. The use of megadose CD34-selected PBSC without post-transplant GVHD prophylaxis yielded rapid engraftment, low 100-day mortality and incidence of severe GVHD, and excellent survival. The overall survival compares favorably with MSD and MUD HSCT.

Disclosure: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

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