Unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) has become a standard therapeutic option for pediatric patients who may benefit from hematopoietic stem cell transplantation but lack an adequate HLA-identical related donor. UCB has the advantages of rapid availability and presumably lower risk of severe, acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) despite donor-recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA) disparity. Double-unit UCBT (DUCBT) extends access to transplantation to patients who were previously disqualified on the basis of the available cell dose in a single unit. Recent studies report high engraftment rate, low incidence of severe acute GVHD and a relatively low transplantation-related mortality in DUCBT. (
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