Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a fludarabine-based non-myeloablative conditioning regimen in allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT)from related and unrelated donor for chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase(CML-CP).

Methods: Fifteen consecutive patients with CML-CP between May, 2005 and July, 2006 were treated with a single non-myeloablative conditioning regimen in this study. They were 10 males and 5 females with a median age of 41 years (range, 18–49). Donors were HLA-A, B and high resolution DR fully matched siblings (n=8), matched unrelated donors (n=6), and 1-locus mismatched unrelated donors (n=1). The stem cells were collected from either peripheral blood (n=9) or bone marrow (n=6). The conditioning regimen included fludarabine 30 mg/m2/day (days -10 to -5), oral busulfan 4 mg/kg/day (n=4 patients), or intravenous busulfan 3.2 mg/kg/day (n=11 patients) (days -6 to -5) and anti-thymocyte globulin (Fresenius, Germany) (5mg/kg/day) (days -4 to-1). Mycophenolate mofetil combined with cyclosporin A and methotrexate was used for prevention of acute graft-versus-host disease(GVHD) after transplantation. Lipoprostagandin E1 was used in prophylactic regimen for hepatic veno-occlusive disease(VOD). To assess engraftment, degree of chimerism, minimal residual disease and relapse, all patients were monitored by cytogenetic analysis and donor vs host-specific DNA markers using short tandem repeats (STR) assay. The average cell number of MNC transfused was 4.83 (3.14~11.5)×108/kg; CD34+ cells were 3.47(2.38~6.24)×106/kg, CFU-GM was 2.15 (1.85~3.06) ×105/kg.

Results: Engraftment of neutrophils and platelets was achieved in 14 out of 15 (93.3%) patients within a median of 13 days (range, 8–21) and 18 days (range, 10–35), respectively. Fourteen patients achieved complete donor chimerism in the peripheral blood before day +35 and one developed graft failure. No patients developed acute GVHD and VOD, but one died from interstitial pneumonia while she was in continuous complete remission 2 months following transplantation. With a median follow-up of 5 months (range 1.5 to 15), 13 of them were still in CCR. The overall non-relapse mortality in this group was 6.67% (1/15 patients). Overall survival, and disease-free survival rates were 93.3% and 86.7%, respectively.

Conclusion: A fludarabine-based non-myeloablative conditioning regimen in allogeneic stem cell transplantation from related and unrelated donors is an effective and safe choice for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase.

Disclosure: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

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