Background: While the therapeutic armamentarium for plasma cell disorders have expanded recently with introduction of thalidomide, lenalidomide and bortezomib, these diseases are still incurable and more agents are needed. We have previously demonstrated expression of CD 52 on plasma cells in MM, MGUS and AL amyloidosis. Based on this data we conducted a Phase II Study of Campath (Alemtuzumab; Monoclonal Anti-CD52 Antibody) in Primary Systemic Amyloidosis and Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma.
Methods: The study was an IRB approved, Phase II protocol, with a two stage design and interim analysis at 14 patients, to assess the efficacy and toxicity of Alemtuzumab. The regimen involved a dose escalation during week one (Day I 3 mg SQ; Day II 10 mg SQ; Day III 30 mg SQ; then 30 mg SQ three times a week for a planned total of 17 additional weeks). All patients received concurrent Co-Trimoxazole, Fluconazole and Valacyclovir prophylaxis. The planned accrual was 32 patients.
Results: A total of 14 patients were accrued, 8 patients with MM and 6 patients with AL. There were 8 females and 6 males in the study. The median age was 62 years (range: 50–78) years. The patients were heavily pretreated with the median number of treatments being 4. There were 5 grade 3–4 toxicities (CMV viremia (2 pts), skin rash (2 pts), and febrile neutropenia (1 pt)). Seven patients had evidence of disease progression and were removed from study. One patient completed the treatments with a mixed response. One patient had a sudden death while on study. The median duration of therapy was 6 weeks (range 3 weeks to 17 weeks). The accrual was stopped after 14 patients when the interim analysis showed a lack of anti-tumor efficacy and significant toxicity.
Conclusion: This phase II study in patients with relapsed / refractory myeloma or amyloidosis demonstrated no evidence of clinical activity with use of Campath. In addition it was also associated with significant toxicity in this population. We do not recommend use of campath as a primary treatment modality in these patients. The lack of efficacy despite demonstrated expression of CD52 on clonal plasma cells once again highlights the need for combining treatments with multiple mechanisms in order to improve the response and outcome in these patients. Whether it can synergize with other therapies at lower doses without significant toxicity remains unknown.
Disclosure: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.