Abstract

Albeit most pts with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) treated with imatinib (IM) have a favorable outcome, some will acquire resistance, mainly due to the development of Abl kinase domain mutations, which confer varying levels of TKI resistance. We describe a novel V304D mutation in pts with Ph+ leukemia who failed TKI therapy. Expression of V304D mutation in BCR-ABL failed to induce cytokine-independence in Ba/F3 cells. Studies in Cos-7 cells demonstrated that this mutant did not induce autophosphorylation and was deficient in kinase activity. We detected V304D mutation in 13 (18%) of 70 IM-resistant pts screened (12 CML, 1 Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia [ALL]), and it was present in a median of 37% (range, 20% to 80%) resistant clones. Median age was 60 years (range, 30 to 81) and median time from diagnosis to IM therapy was 39 months (range, 1 to 91). Eleven (92%) of 12 pts with CML were in chronic phase (CP) at IM start and 1 was in blast phase (BP). Pts received IM for a median of 35 months (range, 2 to 66). Nine pts with CML had failed interferon and 2 (1 CML, 1 Ph+ALL) allogeneic stem cell transplantation prior to IM. Ten (83%) of 12 pts started IM at 400 mg/d but all eventually received ≥600 mg/d. Six pts with CML achieved a complete hematologic response (CHR), 1 BP returned to chronic phase (RCP), and 6 (5 CML, 1 Ph+ALL) had primary hematologic resistance (HR). No cytogenetic (CG) responses were observed and 7 pts with CML CP progressed (4 to AP and 3 to BP) after IM discontinuation. Four pts with CML (1 CP, 2 AP, 1 BP) received nilotinib after IM failure for a median of 2 months (range, 1 to 3.5). Two pts (1 CP, 1 AP) showed primary HR, 1 AP progressed to BP, and 1 BP (on 600 mg twice daily) had a transient (6 weeks) CHR before showing secondary HR. Twelve pts (11 CML, 1 Ph+ALL) received dasatinib: 7 at 70 mg twice daily, 1 at 90 mg daily, 1 at 140 mg daily, 1 at 180 mg daily, 1 at 90 mg twice daily, and 1 at 120 mg twice daily. Dasatinib was administered for a median of 8 months (range, 1 to 23). Two pts achieved CHR and a minor CG response in 1 analysis (75% and 65% Ph+ cells, respectively), 1 RCP, 1 no evidence of leukemia, and 8 (67%) primary HR. One of 4 pts who started dasatinib in CP progressed to AP. Responders to dasatinib had V304D mutation in 20%, 20%, and 25% of clones, respectively. Four pts exhibited concomitant Abl kinase mutations developed prior to dasatinib therapy: 3 with F317L and 1 with G250E. One pt had a 6 base pair in-frame insertion in the TK domain. T315I mutation evolved in 1 pt after dasatinib discontinuation. Eight pts discontinued dasatinib due to disease progression (7 died), 2 were lost to follow-up, and 2 remain on CHR after 17+ and 23+ months on dasatinib. In vitro studies of cells from one pt in CP with V304D mutation (50% of clones) failed to detect CrkL phosphorylation despite detectable expression of the Bcr-Abl protein. In summary, the V304D mutation in the Abl kinase domain results in kinase inactivation and is associated with high-level resistance to TKI therapy, transformation to AP/BP in CML and a particularly poor prognosis. Loss of kinase activity by mutation represents a very unique mechanism of kinase inhibitor resistance and predicts acquisition of other transforming events that support CML cell survival.

Disclosures: Novartis, Chemgenex, Bristol-Myers Squibb, BTT, Johnson & Johnson, Wyeth, Celgene.

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