Abstract

High dose cytarabine (HiDAC) is the most effective single agent for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML); clofarabine (CLOF) is also an active agent in AML. Preclinical data suggest synergy between cytarabine and clofarabine. We conducted a two step limited phase I trial of sequential HiDAC (2g/m2 over 3 hours) followed by CLOF (30 or 40 mg/m2 infused over 2 hours), each given daily for 5 days, in adults with AML in first or second relapse or refractory to initial induction chemotherapy. Patients with persistent leukemia on day 12–14 received a second course of HiDAC→CLOF; phase I toxicity evaluation was based on cycle 1 data only. Nine patients (6 men and 3 women) were treated. The median age was 55.5 years (range 29.2 – 68.1). All had relapsed AML; two had prior autologous stem cell transplant. The initial cohort of 3 patients received clofarabine 30 mg/m2 with one dose limiting toxicity (DLT); an additional 3 patients were treated in cohort 1. The second cohort was treated with CLOF 40 mg/m2, the target dose for a planned phase II trial of HiDAC→CLOF. Hematologic toxicities and infections were not considered DLT. In the first cohort (30 mg/m2; n = 6) there was 1 DLT - grade 4 skin rash in a patient who subsequently died on day 17 with sepsis-related multi-organ failure; 3 patients had reversible grade 3 elevations in AST/ALT, 1 had grade 3 skin toxicity. In cohort 2 (40 mg/m2 ; n = 3) there was no DLT; 1 patient had grade 3 AST/ALT; 2 had grade 3 skin. Three of nine patients received a second course of induction HiDACCLOF. Two of six patients in cohort 1 achieved complete remission (CR), 1/3 patients in cohort 2 achieved CRi(CRp). Two of three CR/CRi patients received one course and one received two courses of HiDAC→CLOF induction. Conclusion: HiDAC→CLOF was associated with transient elevation in AST/ALT (4/9) and skin rash (3/9; primarily extensive palmar/plantar); skin toxicity appeared especially prominent in patients with palmar/plantar toxicity during prior therapy with HiDAC. Toxicities (other than skin) were comparable to other salvage regimens for relapsed and refractory AML. This combination is active in relapsed AML with 3/9 CR/CRp. A phase II trial of HiDAC→CLOF is underway; prophylactic intravenous hydrocortisone has been incorporated in an attempt to decrease skin toxicity.

Disclosures: Clofarabine in AML.; Genzyme - provided partial support for the trial.

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