Abstract

Aberrant DNA methylation and histone code alterations are common in leukemia. The oral isotype-selective HDAC inhibitor MGCD0103 and the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor azacitidine have been shown to have synergistic antileukemia activity in preclinical models. Both agents have single-agent clinical activity in MDS and AML (Garcia-Manero, ASCO, 2006 & Silverman, JCO, 2002). Based on this, we have developed a Phase I/II study of the combination in leukemia. Patients with relapsed/refractory MDS (10% or more marrow blasts) or AML, or untreated older patients with AML are eligible. Adequate performance status, renal and hepatic functions are required. Azacitidine is administered at its approved dose/schedule: 75 mg/m2 SC daily x 7 every 28 days. MGCD0103 was started on day 5 of azacitidine and was given as an oral dose 3 times a week without adjusting for body weight, without interruption. The phase I portion of the study design followed a classic “3+3” model and only MGCD0103 was dose escalated. Three dose levels of MGCD0103 have been studied so far: 35, 60 and 90 mg. Twelve patients have been registered in this study. The median age is 61 (range 45–85). All, but 1 patient with MDS, had AML. All patients had relapsed or refractory disease. A total of 24 cycles have been administered, mean = 2.0 (range 1–4). Only 1 patient has experienced dose limiting toxicity: grade 3 vomiting at a dose of 90 mg of MGCD0103. Otherwise, the combination has been very well tolerated and the MTD has not yet been defined, with dosing currently ongoing at the approximate MTD of single agent MGCD0103: 110 mg orally three times a week without interruption. Preliminary PK data indicate that the t1/2 for azacitidine is less than 2 h, and does not appear to be affected by MGCD0103. Likewise, MGCD0103 pharmacokinetic characteristics do not appear to be affected by azacitidine. The majority of patients exhibited substantial reduction in HDAC activity during treatment with the combination. Analysis of DNA methylation is ongoing. Two patients have achieved response: 1 complete remission after 4 courses of therapy (in an older patient in first relapsed AML with an initial CR duration of 11 months and multiple cytogenetic abnormalities). A second older patient with refractory AML achieved a complete marrow CR (marrow blasts less than 5%) but died from pneumonia (not drug-related) after the second course of therapy on day 28 before peripheral count recovery. In conclusion, the combination of azacitidine with MGCD0103 is safe in patients with advanced AML/MDS. The combination has encouraging safety, PK, and clinical activity profiles. The study continues at the MTD of single agent MGCD013 in combination with azacitidine. Once the MTD of the combination is documented, the study will continue as a phase II study in this patient population.

Disclosures: 5-azacitidine and MGCD0103 are not approved for its use in AML. 5-azacitidine is approved for MDS.; Tracy-Ann Patterson, Marja Dubay, Zuomei Li, Robert E. Martell are employees of MethylGene Inc.; G. Garcia-Manero is a consultant for MethylGene Inc and Pharmion.; This study is funded by MethylGene and Pharmion.

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