Abstract

ADAMTS13 is a plasma metalloproteinase that limits platelet-rich thrombi by cleaving von Willebrand factor (VWF) at the Tyr1605-Met1606 bond in the A2 domain. A minimal substrate that consists of GST linked to VWF residues Asp1596-Arg1668 with a C-terminal 6×His tag (GST-VWF73) is cleaved rapidly by plasma ADAMTS13. Further removal of Glu1660-Arg1668, which comprises a predicted C-terminal α-helix (GST-VWF64) markedly reduced the rate of cleavage, suggesting this helix comprises an exosite for substrate recognition. By amino acid sequencing, ADAMTS13 was shown to cleave the Tyr1605-Met1606 bond of GST-VWF64. Truncation of ADAMTS13 after certain structural domains had different effects on substrate cleavage. After removal of the GST moiety by proteolysis, the kinetic constants for cleavage of VWF73 and VWF64 were determined for several recombinant ADAMTS13 variants using a quantitative MALDI-MS assay (Table). Comparison of the specificity constants (kcat/Km) shows that ADAMTS13 truncated after the spacer domain (construct MDTCS) cleaved VWF73 ~20-fold faster than did a similar enzyme without the spacer domain (construct MDTC). In contrast, both MDTCS and MDTC cleaved VWF64 slowly at a rate similar to the cleavage of VWF73 by MDTC. Most of the variation in cleavage rates was explained by differences in Km, suggesting that the spacer domain recognizes an exosite at the C-terminus of VWF73 that is missing from VWF64. Cleavage of VWF73 yields a C-terminal product (cVWF63). Purified cVWF63 (7.5 μM) inhibited MDTCS activity toward VWF73 or VWF64 (1.5 μM) by »90%, but did not inhibit MDTC, suggesting that the exosite of VWF73 or cVWF63 interacts directly with the spacer domain. Moreover, cVWF63 inhibited the cleavage of multimeric VWF by full-length ADAMTS13 and MDTCS up to 80%, but did not inhibit MDTC. The selective effects of deleting the ADAMTS13 spacer domain and Glu1660-Arg1668 of the VWF domain A2 suggest that the C-terminal exosite of the VWF A2 domain accelerates substrate cleavage by binding specifically to the ADAMTS13 spacer domain.

Table Kinetics studies of VWF73 and VWF64 cleavage by ADAMTS13 and its truncations

VWF73VWF64
Enzyme Km (μM) kcat (s−1kcat/Km (×105 M−1 s−1Km (μM) kcat (s−1kcat/Km (×105 M−1 s−1
FL-ADAMTS13 1.7±0.4 1.3±0.1 7.5±2.0 37.7±12.8 1.9±0.4 0.5±0.3 
MDTCS 0.8±0.2 1.7±0.1 20.5±6.6 5.5±1.4 0.6±0.1 1.0±0.3 
MDTC 16.0±4.5 1.8±0.3 1.1±0.5 17.9±6.3 1.6±0.3 0.9±0.5 
VWF73VWF64
Enzyme Km (μM) kcat (s−1kcat/Km (×105 M−1 s−1Km (μM) kcat (s−1kcat/Km (×105 M−1 s−1
FL-ADAMTS13 1.7±0.4 1.3±0.1 7.5±2.0 37.7±12.8 1.9±0.4 0.5±0.3 
MDTCS 0.8±0.2 1.7±0.1 20.5±6.6 5.5±1.4 0.6±0.1 1.0±0.3 
MDTC 16.0±4.5 1.8±0.3 1.1±0.5 17.9±6.3 1.6±0.3 0.9±0.5 

Disclosure: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

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