Objective: To analyze the risk factors of clinically overt hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) (grade ≥II) in 114 patients undergoing allo-HSCT to predict the occurrence of HC.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 29 cases of clinically overt HC from a series of 114 patients given allo-HSCT from April 1997 to December 2004. The time of follow-up began from the day of initiating conditioning to day 180 post-transplant. The 11 clinical parameters were selected for univariate analysis using a Cox regression: age, sex, underlying disease, conditioning regimen, disease status at transplant, aGVHD, donor type, use of ATG, GVHD prophylaxis, platelet and neutrophil engraftment. Factors that were significant at the 0.1 level on univariate analysis were evaluated by multivariate analysis using a Cox regression. The cumulative incidence of grade ≥ II HC within the day 180 after transplantation was calculated by the method of Kaplan and Meier.

Results: 29 out of 114 patients (26%) developed HC with grade II in 12/29 cases (41.4%), grade III in 11/29 cases (37.9%) and grade IV in 6/29 cases (20.7%). The following factors were associated with an increased risk of HC by univariate analysis: male gender (RR=2.885, P=0.021),younger than 26 years (RR=3.265, P=0.007),grade III~IV aGVHD (RR=4.039, P=0.002),unrelated doner (RR=4.347, P=0),intense GVHD prophylaxis (RR=2.218, P=0.045),advanced disease (RR=2.668, P=0.009). These risk factors were entered into a multivariate model. Only male gender (RR=2.993, 95% CI 1.218–7.358; P=0.017) and unrelated donor (RR=4.478, 95% CI 2.049–9.786; P=0.000) were identified as being significantly associated with the occurrence of hemorrhagic cystitis.

Conclusion: We found that in multivariate analysis, patients were at increased risk of HC if they were male or had received graft from unrelated donors.

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