Abstract

Rituximab (chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody) has been used in the treatment of B-NHL. We have reported in vitro that rituximab treatment signals B-NHL cell lines Ramos and Daudi and inhibits both the ERK 1/2 MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways leading to selective inhibition of Bclxl expression and sensitization to drug-induced apoptosis. The inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway by rituximab was shown to be due, in part, to the induction of the Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein (RKIP) (Jazirehi, et al., 2005 Cancer Research 65:264–276). The PI3K-Akt signaling pathway is a key regulator of cell survival and aberrant activation of the PI3K-Akt pathway has been implicated in both drug resistance and resistance to apoptosis-inducing stimuli. Akt can promote cell survival by indirectly activating the proximal transcription factor NF-κB through the phosphorylation of I-kappa B kinase (I-κB) (

Ozes et. al.
Nature
401
:
82
–85,
1999
). This study investigated whether NF-κB inhibition by rituximab and downregulation of Bclxl expression was also the result of rituximab-mediated inhibition of the PI3K-Akt pathway. Ramos and Daudi B-NHL cell lines were treated with rituximab (20 ug/ml) and cell lysates were prepared and both Akt and phospho-Akt (p-Akt) expression were examined by western blot. The findings demonstrate that both cell lines show constitutively activated p-Akt and treatment with rituximab significantly inhibited p-Akt but not Akt. Time kinetics analysis demonstrated that inhibition of p-Akt was first detected at 3–6 hours following rituximab treatment and inhibition was maintained up to 24 hours. Concomitantlly, a similar time kinetics revealed inhibition of NF-κB activity as assessed by EMSA. Since the inhibition of NF-kB activity resulted in significant downregulation of Bclxl expression, we also examined the role of the Akt pathway in the regulation of Bclxl expression. Tumor cells were treated with the Akt inhibitor LY294002 and analysis of cell lysates showed significant downregulation of Bclxl expression. Rituximab was previously shown to sensitize B-NHL cells to drug-induced apoptosis via inhibition of NF-κB activity and Bclxl expression. We examined if inhibition of the Akt pathway also chemosensitized the cells. Treatment of Ramos cells with the Akt inhibitor LY294002 significantly sensitized the cells to CDDP-induced apoptosis and synergy was achieved. Altogether, these findings demonstrate, for the first time, that rituximab inhibits the Akt pathway and that this pathway is involved in the regulation of tumor- cell resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. This study also proposes that the Akt pathway is a potential targeting pathway for therapeutic intervention in the treatment of rituximab and drug-resistant B-NHL.

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