HAART has improved the outcome of AIDS patients (pts). Thus high-dose chemotherapy followed by ASCT has been used for the treatment of HIV+Ly pts, similarly to HIV-neg-Ly pts. In a recent report we found delayed engraftment after ASCT in HIV+Ly compared with HIV-neg Ly pts (

). To test the role played by HAART on engrafment we conducted this study, comparing engraftment results on HIV+Ly pts that received HAART with those in wich HAART was withdrawn after ASCT. Patients and Methods: From June 2000 a total of 19 HIV+Ly pts (17 male) received an ASCT in a multicenter cooperative study; 5 were Hodgkin disease (HD) and 14 non-Hodgkin high-grade malignant lymphoma (NHL). Median age was 43 years (range, 31–61); adjusted IPI (aIPI) was: 0–1 in ten pts and 2–3 in nine more pts; advanced Ann Arbor stage (III–IV) was present in 14 pts.Ten pts were treated with HAART during ASCT (HAART+) and in nine pts HAART was withdrawn due to gastrointestinal toxicity (HAART neg). Both groups were similar for the most relevant clinical characteristics (p value Mann-Whitney test or chi-square test > 0.05): HD/NHL, Ann Arbor stage, aIPI, status at ASCT (CR-1/more than CR-1), age, number of lines of chemotherapy before ASCT, number of cycles of mobilization to obtain an adequate amount of CD34+ cells, number of CD34+ cells infused, day of start of GCSF and duration of GCSF-treatment. Results: Median time to reach PMN>0.5 x 109/L was 12 days (9–17) for HAART neg group and 18 days (9–33) for HAART+ pts (p=0.069). Platelet engraftment (>20x109/L) was achieved after a median of 20 days (11–28) and 26 days (11–455) respectively (p=0.25). Nevertheless, a multivariate regression analysis using as covariates HAART, GCSF (starting day) and amount of CD34+ cells infused, was performed. Accordingly no statisticaly significant results were found to relate with myeloid engraftment. Conclusions: Despite the HAART+ group shows longer interval to reach PMN and platelets engraftment following ASCT, we can not definitively conclude that HAART plays a negative influence on engraftment in this clinical setting. In order to clarify these results further recruitment of patients is needed.

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