Abstract

Eradication of minimal residual disease (MRD) during the first months of treatment for patients (pts) with ALL is associated with improved disease-free survival (DFS). We hypothesized that Alemtuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against CD52, might be an effective, novel agent for eradication of MRD in ALL based on data demonstrating strong CD52 expression in other lymphoid malignancies and in several ALL cell lines, and from case reports of clinical activity in advanced ALL. In CALGB 10102, to define the percentage of CD52+ cases and to demonstrate feasibility, we tested dose escalation of Alemtuzumab in sequential cohorts to a target dose of 30 mg administered sc 3X/week for 4 weeks (12 doses) during post-remission therapy. Pts are eligible to receive Alemtuzumab if lymphoblast CD52 expression at diagnosis is ≥ 10% as determined in a CALGB reference laboratory. The 10102 therapy is composed of monthly treatment modules outlined below:

Treatment module sequence is: A,B,C, D, A, B, C followed by maintenance therapy for a total of 2 years. Antimicrobial prophylaxis for cytomegalovirus (CMV) (e.g. acyclovir 800 mg qid) and pneumocystis carinii is mandated. Weekly quantitative monitoring for CMV viremia is performed. 150 pts with untreated ALL have enrolled: Median age is 48 yrs. 124 (83%) pts have precursor-B; 19(13%) have precursor T-ALL and 7 (4%) have biphenotypic or bilineal ALL. Of 139 evaluable pts, 95 (68%) had CD52 ≥ 10%. By immunophenotype, 72% of precursor B and 61% of precursor T pts were eligible to receive Alemtuzumab. Phase I dose escalation was recently completed. Dose limiting toxicity (DLT) for Phase I was defined as the inability to proceed with protocol treatment within 6 weeks of the last dose of Alemtuzumab. Non-heme toxicities have been mild and sc Alemtuzumab administration was well tolerated. Hematologic and infectious toxicities are summarized below:

Myelosuppression was transient and use of G-CSF was permitted during Module D. 2 pts were treated for CMV viremia due to rising CMV titers in 2 sequential assays. 6 other pts had transient CMV elevations during or immediately following completion of Alemtuzumab that did not require treatment. 22/24 phase I pts received all 12 doses of Alemtuzumab. There were 2 DLTs reported: 1 pt in cohort 2 due to CMV viremia requiring gancyclovir following completion of Alemtuzumab; and 1 pt in cohort 3 due to ANC < 1500 six weeks after Alemtuzumab (pt was not given G-CSF). Based on these Phase I data, the targeted dose of 30 mg Alemtuzumab was recommended for further study in the ongoing Phase II study. In summary, we report for the first time that CD52 is expressed in the majority of ALL cases and demonstrate the feasibility of employing Alemtuzumab in front-line therapy. Ongoing accrual to the phase II study will evaluate the efficacy of Alemtuzumab in eradication of MRD in adult ALL.

Module AModule BModule CModule D (Alemtuzumab)Maintenance
Cytoxan Cytoxan Methotrexate (IV, PO, IT) 10 mg* cohort 1 Vincristine 
Daunorubicin Cytarabine Vincristine 20 mg* cohort 2 Dexamethasone 
Vincristine Vincrisitne 6-MP 30 mg* cohort 3 6-MP 
Dexamethasone L-asparaginase  *Phase I dose escalation Methotrexate 
L-asparaginase IT-Methotrexate    
Module AModule BModule CModule D (Alemtuzumab)Maintenance
Cytoxan Cytoxan Methotrexate (IV, PO, IT) 10 mg* cohort 1 Vincristine 
Daunorubicin Cytarabine Vincristine 20 mg* cohort 2 Dexamethasone 
Vincristine Vincrisitne 6-MP 30 mg* cohort 3 6-MP 
Dexamethasone L-asparaginase  *Phase I dose escalation Methotrexate 
L-asparaginase IT-Methotrexate    
Alemtuzumab cohortsNMyelosuppression (grades 3 or 4)LymphopeniaCMV viremia
10 mg 
20 mg 10 
30 mg 
Alemtuzumab cohortsNMyelosuppression (grades 3 or 4)LymphopeniaCMV viremia
10 mg 
20 mg 10 
30 mg 

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