Abstract

Immunostimulatory DNA sequences that are present in microbial DNA, DNA-containing immune complexes and synthetic CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) can activate cells of the immune system via Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). Normal B-cells respond to such stimulation by upregulation of co-stimulatory molecules, proliferation and prolonged survival. The response of chronic lymphocytic leukemia B-cells to CpG ODN stimulation appears to be more variable, since both proliferation and induction of apoptosis have been reported. Because CLL B-cells with mutated and unmutated Ig VH genes show distinct clinical and biological behaviors, we compared their responsiveness to CpG ODN stimulation in terms of proliferation, survival, activation of TLR9 signaling pathways and expression of cell-cycle regulatory and anti-apoptotic proteins. A significant proliferative response was induced in most of the VH unmutated CLL samples (14/23), whereas 3H thymidine incorporation was low or absent in the majority of the VH mutated cases (22/27, P = 0.005). More strikingly, stratification of the CLL cases based on the clinical course showed strong proliferative responses in 14/21 cases with progressive disease and in only 5/29 cases with stable disease (P=0.001). The absence of a proliferative response to CpG ODN stimulation in the stable/VH mutated cases was not caused by different early signaling events, since phosphorylation of JNK, ERK1/2 and Akt, as well as degradation of IkB, was detected in almost all investigated samples (7/7 proliferating and 5/6 nonproliferating). However, a notable difference was observed in the duration of ERK2 activation, which was transient in the nonproliferating CLL B-cells, but lasted more than 24 hours in the proliferating cases. This difference was associated with dimished phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and less pronounced or absent induction of cyclin E and cyclin A in the nonproliferating cases, suggesting a block in the G1/S phase transition. On the other hand, cyclin D3 was induced and p27KIP1 was downregulated in all samples, indicating that CLL B-cells from both subgroups can enter the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Analysis of CLL B-cell survival by Annexin V/PI staining and PARP cleavage after 48 hours stimulation with CpG ODN showed significant levels of apoptosis in most of the nonproliferating cases. In contrast, proliferating CLL B-cells remained viable after CpG ODN stimulation, which was associated with upregulation of the anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL. These data indicate that immunostimulatory CpG oligodeoxynucleotides can induce distinct responses in progressive/VH unmutated and stable/VH mutated CLL B-cells, which are characterized by proliferation and inhibition of spontaneous apoptosis in the former and induction of apoptosis in the latter group of cases. Although both subgroups show similar early activation of TLR9 signaling pathways and both enter into the G1 phase of the cell cycle, the absence of sustained ERK2 activation precludes cell cycle progression in most stable/VH mutated CLL B-cells. The greater capacity to traverse the cell cycle and proliferate in response to immunostimulatory CpG DNA may therefore be related to the more aggressive clinical course that is associated with CLL B-cells that express unmutated VH genes.

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