Uncertainty still exists with the effects of allogeneic PBSCT on the clinical outcomes of patients with hematological malignancies. Our aim was analyzed retrospectively the clinical outcomes of 483 patients who underwent an allo PBSCT in 9 Brazilians centers from May 1994 to February 2004. The analyzes included patients with hematological malignancies who underwent PBSCT from HLA identical siblings donors treated with G-CSF at a dose of 10mgr/kg/day, 5 days. Median age was 34ys old (2–57), advanced disease was present in 58%, conditioning without irradiation was 85%; GVHD prophylaxis with MTX/CsA was 91%; CD34+ median was 4.7X106/kg (0.51–71.6); the median follow-up for surviving patients was 797 days (8–3420); median day for neutrophils and platelets engraftment was 15 and 14, respectively; cumulative incidence (CI) for ³ 2 aGVHD was 38%; extensive cGVHD 63%; CI for transplant relate mortality (TRM) 59%; CI for relapse 37%; the estimates of OS and DFS at 9 ys are 33% and 42, respectively. The following factors were significantly associated with better outcomes for engraftment, aGVHD, cGVHD, OS, DFS, relapse, and TRM in univariate analyzes, respectively: neutrophils and platelets engraftment: CD34+ cell dose > 2.8X106/kg, GVHD prophylaxis other than MTX/CsA, and sex match other than female donor for male recipient; aGVHD: age<43ys old, and CD34 dose > 4.7X106/kg; cGVHD: age < 25ys, sex match other than female donor for male recipient, advanced disease and CD3+ dose < 170X106/kg; OS: early disease; DFS: early disease, CD34+ dose > 4.7X106/kg; relapse: age> 25ys, CD34+ cell dose > 2.8X106/kg, and early disease; TRM: early disease. All the results remained significant in multivariate analyzes, but CD34+ dose and platelet engraftment; age and CD34+ dose in aGVHD; age and CD3+ in cGVHD, and age in relapse. In our experience, sex match, CD34+ dose, GVHD prophylaxis may influence the engrafment, and sex match and disease phase the cGVHD. Furthermore, advanced disease had a negative impact on OS and TRM;. CD34+ higher dose and early disease were associated with better DFS and lower relapse.

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