We undertook an analysis of 2,150 recipients of bone marrow transplant (BMT) at the University of Minnesota to determine the incidence of post- BMT malignant neoplasms (MNs). Fifty-one patients developed 53 MNs, compared with 4.3 expected from general population rates (standardized incidence ratio [SIR], 11.6, 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.2–14.5). These included 22 occurrences of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (BLPD), 17 solid nonhematopoietic tumors, 10 myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), 1 acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), 2 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), and 1 Hodgkin's disease (HD). The estimated actuarial incidence of any post-BMT malignancy was 9.9% +/- 2.3% at 13 years posttransplant. The cumulative probability of BLPD plateaued at 1.6% +/- 0.3% by 4 years from transplant and factors independently associated with increased risk included in vitro T-cell depletion of marrow (relative risk (RR) = 11.9, P < .001), HLA mismatch (RR = 8.9, P < .001), use of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) for graft versus host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis (RR = 5.9, P < .001) or in the preparative regimen (RR = 3.1, P = .03) and primary immunodeficiency (RR = 2.5, P = .06). The cumulative probability of developing solid malignancy was 5.6% +/- 2.2% at 13 years from BMT. Malignant melanomas were the most common (SIR, 10.3, 95% CI 1.9 to 25.4). The actuarial incidence of MDS/AML plateaued at 2.1% +/- 0.8% at 9 years and was seen most often in older patients receiving autologous peripheral blood stem cells for HD or NHL. These data document that BMT recipients are at an increased risk of later malignancy, which may add significant morbidity and mortality to the transplant process. Methods for screening and identification of individuals at increased risk need to be addressed in future studies.

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