Thirty-eight children between the ages of 0.8 and 17 years with acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia in first remission induced by chemotherapy were given cyclophosphamide, total body irradiation, and bone marrow transplants from HLA-matched donors. Six patients died of pneumonia, one died of metabolic problems, and one died of chronic graft-v-host disease complications. Five patients relapsed between six months and 3.2 years after transplantation. Three of the five died of leukemia, one survives with leukemia three years after transplantation, and one survives in remission off treatment following chemotherapy for 22 months. Twenty-five survive in continuous remission from 1.7 to 8.4 years after transplantation, and the actuarial analysis shows a disease- free survival rate of 64%, with a plateau extending from 3.5 to 8.4 years. All lead normal lives.