The process by which resting hemopoietic stem cells become activated is poorly understood, but it has been suggested that cyclic nucleotide levels in the cell may play an important role. In the present study, the effect of various, nucleotides and stimulators of nucleotide synthesis upon the formation of in vitro granulocyte colonies has been examined. It was found that physiologic concentrations of 3′, 5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate enhanced the formation of granulocyte- macrophage colonies in the presence of colony-stimulating activity. The cells sensitive to cGMP activation were resistant to thymidine suicide and could not be activated by colony-stimulating activity alone. Therefore it was suggested that the cGMP sensitive stem cell was an ordinarily resting stem cell which was triggered into a proliferative state by cGMP.