Thrombosis is one of the major complications of polycythemia vera. Seventeen patients with polycythemia vera in good hematologic control were evaluated for abnormalities of the coagulation system. Activation of the intrinsic coagulation cascade was suggested by low levels of factor XII, prekallikrein, and kallikrein inhibitors in 12 of 17 patients. The group also demonstrated a significant increase in soluble fibrin complexes using plasma gel filtration on 4% agarose. Fibrin degradation products were normal and antithrombin III levels were slightly elevated. It appears that patients with polycythemia vera have chronic activation of the coagulation system, probably initiated by activation of factor XII. No correlation between the degree of coagulation abnormalities and thromboembolic complications was evident in this group of patients.