Measurements of blood carbonic anhydrase activity were made in patients with a variety of blood dyscrasias, using a new method. In patients with anemia due to loss of blood, infection and uremia, and in most of those with anemia associated with liver disease and leukemia, a constant relation was found between blood carbonic anhydrase activity and the hematocrit; the same holds in polycythemia vera. In patients with pernicious anemia, and in some with "refractory" anemia, and anemias associated with hepatic disease and with myelogenous leukemia, blood carbonic anhydrase activity was in or near the normal range in spite of lowered hematocrit values. The possible relation between these differences among anemias and the tolerance of patients with various anemias to exercise is discussed.

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