1. Coincidental Mediterranean anemia and pernicious anemia were found in a 26 year old soldier of Sicilian parentage.
2. The diagnosis of pernicious anemia was made on the finding of achlorhydria after histamine, glossitis, megaloblastic bone marrow and macrocytic anemia which responded to liver extract on two occasions.
3. The diagnosis of mild Mediterranean anemia was made by finding the target-oval-cell trait in the patient and in five members of his family.
4. It is of interest that target cells were not found in the peripheral blood until treatment with liver was begun. While pernicious anemia dominated, the character of the peripheral blood picture was macrocytic. Liver therapy corrected this, whereupon "hypochromic polycythemia" characteristic of mild Mediterranean anemia was found.