• Ibrutinib added to initial rituximab immunotherapy was not associated with clinically significant response rates in untreated PTLD

  • Increasing the proportion of patients with a response to initial immunotherapy, who can avoid cytotoxic chemotherapy, remains a priority

Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a rare complication of solid organ transplantation, and cytotoxic chemotherapy is associated with treatment-related morbidity and mortality. Current treatment takes a sequential, risk-stratified approach, patients with low-risk disease following initial immunotherapy can avoid escalation to immunochemotherapy. TIDaL is a prospective, single-arm phase 2 trial investigating the activity and tolerability of ibrutinib combined with risk-stratified therapy for first-line treatment of PTLD. Eligible patients were adults with newly-diagnosed CD20-positive B-cell PTLD after solid organ transplant and performance status 0 to 2. Initial treatment comprised 49 days of ibrutinib 560mg once daily, with 4 doses of weekly rituximab. Treatment response on interim scan and baseline international prognostic index were used to allocate patients to either a low-risk arm (who continued ibrutinib, alongside 4 further doses of 3-weekly rituximab) or high-risk (escalation to R-CHOP immunochemotherapy, ibrutinib continuing in patients aged <65 years). The primary outcome was complete response on interim scan, achieved by 11/38 patients (29%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 15% - 46%). This did not reach the pre-specified threshold for clinically significant activity. Secondary outcomes included allocation to the low-risk arm (41% of patients), 2-year progression-free survival (58%, 95% CI 44% - 76%), and 2-year overall survival (76%, 95% CI 63% - 91%). Adverse events were mostly haematological, gastrointestinal and infective. Whilst TIDaL does not support adding ibrutinib into first-line treatment of PTLD, increasing the proportion of patients who can be treated without cytotoxic chemotherapy remains an important aim of future research. This trial was registered as ISRCTN32667607

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