• Chronic granulomatous disease has heterogenous clinical manifestations and course with unique genotypic-phenotypic correlations

  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an effective and increasingly safe curative approach

Neutrophils are the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Neutrophils execute and modulate immune responses by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) is a primary immune deficiency disorder of phagocytes, caused by inherited mutations in the genes of the NADPH oxidase enzyme. These mutations lead to failure of ROS generation followed by recurrent bacterial and fungal infections, frequently associated with hyper-inflammatory manifestations. We report a multi-center cumulative experience in diagnosing and treating patients with CGD. From 1986 to 2021, 2,918 patients suffering from frequent infections were referred for neutrophil evaluation. Among them, 110 patients were diagnosed with CGD, 56 of Jewish ancestry, 48 of Arabic ancestry and 6 non-Jewish/non-Arabic. As opposed to other Western countries, the autosomal recessive (AR) CGD subtypes were predominant in Israel (71/110 patients). Thirty-nine patients had X-linked CGD, in most patients associated with severe infections (clinical severity score ≥3) and poor outcomes, presenting at a significantly earlier age than AR-CGD subtypes. The full spectrum of infections and hyper-inflammatory manifestations are described. Six patients had hypomorphic mutations with significantly milder phenotype, clinical severity score ≤2, and better outcomes. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was implemented in 39/110 patients (35.5%). Successful engraftment was achieved in 92%, with 82% long-term survival and 71% full clinical recovery. CGD is a complex disorder requiring a multi-professional team. Early identification of the genetic mutation is essential for prompt diagnosis, suitable management and prevention.

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