• RAS/RAF mutations are present in up to 61% of patients with multiple myeloma

  • Most of them are subclonal, in agreement with a secondary event

Multiple Myeloma (MM) is characterized by a huge heterogeneity at the molecular level. The RAS/RAF pathway is the most frequently mutated, in about 50% of the patients. However, these mutations are frequently subclonal, suggesting a secondary event. Since these genes are part of our routine next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel, we analyzed >10,000 patients with different plasma cell disorders in order to describe the RAS/RAF landscape. In this large cohort of patients, almost 61% of the patients presented a RAS/RAF mutation at diagnosis or relapse, but much lower frequencies in pre-symptomatic cases. Of note, the mutations were different from that observed in solid tumors (higher proportions of Q61 mutations). In 29 patients with two different mutations, we were able to perform single cell sequencing, showing that in most cases, mutations occurred in different subclones, suggesting an ongoing mutational process. These findings suggest that RAS/RAF pathway is not an attractive target, both on therapeutic and residual disease assessment points of vue.

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