CD63 is involved in extracellular vesicle (EV) secretion from cells and is shown herein to be regulated by iron via the IRE-IRP system
Iron-loading increased secretion of CD63 positive EVs containing iron-loaded ferritin
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) transfer functional molecules between cells. CD63 is a widely recognized EV marker that contributes to EV secretion from cells. However, the regulation of its expression remains largely unknown. Ferritin is a cellular iron storage protein that can be also secreted by the exosome pathway (Truman-Rosentsvit M. et al. BLOOD 131 (2018) 342-352), with serum ferritin levels classically reflecting body iron stores. Iron metabolism-associated proteins, such as ferritin, are intricately regulated by cellular iron levels via the iron responsive element (IRE)-iron regulatory protein (IRP) system. Herein, we present a novel mechanism demonstrating that the expression of the EV-associated protein, CD63, is under the regulation of the IRE-IRP system. We discovered a canonical IRE in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of CD63 mRNA responsible for regulating its expression in response to increased iron. Cellular iron-loading caused a marked increase in CD63 expression and the secretion from cells of CD63 positive (i.e., CD63(+)) EVs, which were shown to contain ferritin-H (FtH) and -L (FtL). Our results demonstrate that under iron-loading, intracellular ferritin is transferred via nuclear receptor coactivator 4 (NCOA4) to CD63(+) EVs that are then secreted. Such iron-regulated secretion of the major iron storage protein ferritin via CD63(+) EVs, poses significant impact for understanding the local cell-to-cell exchange of ferritin and iron.