The core-binding factors (CBFs), composed of CBFβ and RUNX subunits, play critical roles in most hematopoietic lineages, and are deregulated in Acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The fusion oncogene CBFβ-SMMHC expressed in AML with the chromosome inversion inv(16)(p13q22) acts as a driver oncogene in hematopoietic stem cells and induces AML. This review focuses on novel insights on the molecular mechanisms involving CBFβ-SMMHC driven leukemogenesis and recent advances in therapeutic approaches to target CBFβ-SMMHC in inv(16) AML.

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