Abnormal post-translational palmitoylation of transferrin receptor results in iron overload in Friedreichȁ9;s ataxia fibroblasts.
Artesunate, dichloroacetate and coenzyme-A improved the transferrin receptor palmitoylation and reduced iron overload.
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is a frequent autosomal recessive disease caused by a GAA repeat expansion in the FXN gene encoding frataxin, a mitochondrial protein involved in iron-sulfur cluster (ISC) biogenesis. Resulting frataxin deficiency affects ISC-containing proteins and causes iron to accumulate in the brain and heart of FRDA patients. Here we report on abnormal cellular iron homeostasis in FRDA fibroblasts inducing a massive iron overload in the cytosol and mitochondria. We observe membrane transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) accumulation, increased TfR1 endocytosis, and delayed transferrin recycling, ascribing this to impaired TfR1 palmitoylation. Frataxin deficiency is shown to reduce coenzyme A (CoA) availability for TfR1 palmitoylation. Finally, we demonstrate that artesunate, CoA, and dichloroacetate improve TfR1 palmitoylation and decrease iron overload, paving the road for evidence-based therapeutic strategies at the actionable level of TfR1 palmitoylation in FRDA.