This review focuses on significant advances in the field of pediatric hemostasis and thrombosis, with a focus on published studies within the past decade. The evaluation and management of patients with excessive bleeding remain a cornerstone of consultative hematology. We will describe the development of validated bleeding assessment tools relevant to pediatric practice, laboratory advances in the evaluation of von Willebrand Disease, and a shift in clinical practice regarding the interpretation of normal coagulation studies in patients with significant bleeding phenotypes. There have also been critical advances in the management of hemostatic disorders. This review highlights new treatment paradigms in hemophilia and the rise of multidisciplinary medical homes for women living with bleeding disorders. Given the continued increase in the incidence of thrombosis, particularly in the hospital setting, a full call to arms against pediatric venous thromboembolism is now essential. This review will describe recently completed clinical trials of direct oral anticoagulants in children and adolescents and ongoing work to elucidate the appropriate duration of therapy for children with provoked thrombosis. Recent work regarding the prevention of pediatric venous thromboembolism is highlighted, including studies of thromboprophylaxis and the development of risk-prediction models for hospital-acquired thrombosis. Finally, we review advances in our understanding of post-thrombotic sequelae and the need for continued refinement of our evaluation tools. Despite the significant advances in pediatric hemostasis and thrombosis over the past decade, many unanswered questions remain for the next generation of investigators.

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