Key Points

  • Feasibility of monitored out-of-hospital pain and patient-reported VOC days as endpoints for clinical trials in SCD is demonstrated.

  • ePROs, actigraphy, and laboratory biomarkers enable improved identification and assessment of in-hospital and out-of-hospital VOCs.

Clinical trials in sickle cell disease (SCD) often focus on health care utilization for painful vaso-occlusive crises (VOC). However, no objective, quantifiable pain biomarkers exist, pain is not specific to VOCs, health care utilization varies between patients, unreported at-home VOCs likely contribute to long-term outcomes, and patient-reported outcomes are seldom considered. This non-interventional, longitudinal, 6-month study aimed to develop tools to identify VOCs in SCD patients with or without health care utilization. Participants wore an actigraph device, tracking sleep and activity. SCD patients used an electronic patient-reported outcome (ePRO) tool collecting pain, medication, fatigue, and daily function. Patients self-reported when they experienced VOC pain (VOC day). Biomarkers were collected every 3 weeks (non-VOC). Self-reported VOCs triggered at-home or in-hospital blood collection. The study enrolled 37 participants with SCD; 35 completed the study. Participants reported 114 VOC events and 346 VOC days, of which 62.3% and 78.3%, respectively, were self-treated at home. The ePRO and actigraphy captured endpoints of pain, functionality, fatigue, activity, and sleep; each was significantly altered on VOC days compared with non-VOC days. Biomarkers collected at home or in hospital on VOC days were significantly altered compared with non-VOC baseline values, including leukocyte-platelet aggregates, microfluidic-based blood cell adhesion, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and thrombin-antithrombin. ELIPSIS: demonstrates the feasibility of accurately monitoring out-of-hospital pain, using patient-reported VOC days as potential endpoints for clinical trials in SCD; showed changes in biomarkers and activity measured by actigraphy that may enable improved identification and assessment of VOCs.

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