Sca-1-CD51+ microenvironment cells are predominantly located in trabecular bone lining regions and near the growth plate in mice
Cell surface expression of PDGFRa and/or PDGFRβ identify four populations of Sca-1-CD51+ cells with distinct functions
Hematopoiesis is extrinsically controlled by cells of the bone marrow microenvironment, including skeletal lineage cells. The identification and subsequent studies of distinct subpopulations of maturing skeletal cells is currently limited due to a lack of methods to isolate these cells. We found that murine Lineage-CD31-Sca-1-CD51+ cells can be divided into four subpopulations using flow cytometry, based on their expression of the platelet derived growth factor receptors ⍺ and β (PDGFR⍺ and PDGFRβ). The use of different skeletal lineage reporters confirmed the skeletal origin of the four populations. Multiplex immunohistochemistry studies revealed that all four populations were localized near the growth plate and trabecular bone and were rarely found near cortical bone regions or in central bone marrow. Functional studies revealed differences in their abundance, colony-forming unit-fibroblast capacity and potential to differentiate into mineralized osteoblasts or adipocytes in vitro. Furthermore, the four populations had distinct gene expression profiles and differential cell surface expression of leptin receptor (LEPR) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). Interestingly, we discovered that one of these four different skeletal populations showed the highest expression of genes involved in the extrinsic regulation of B lymphopoiesis. This cell population varied in abundance between distinct hematopoietically active skeletal sites, and significant differences in the proportions of B lymphocyte precursors were also observed in these distinct skeletal sites. It also supported pre-B lymphopoiesis in culture. Our method to isolate four distinct maturing skeletal populations will assist in elucidating the roles of distinct skeletal niche cells in regulating hematopoiesis and bone.