Heme clearance in macrophages requires a metabolic shift to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP).
CO released by heme oxygenase (HMOX)-1 enzymatic activity is sufficient to induce the PPP in vitro and in vivo.
Heme is an essential cofactor for numerous cellular functions, but release of free heme during hemolysis results in oxidative tissue damage, vascular dysfunction, and inflammation. Macrophages play a key protective role in heme clearance; however, the mechanisms that regulate metabolic adaptations that are required for effective heme degradation remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that heme loading drives a unique bioenergetic switch in macrophages, which involves a metabolic shift from oxidative phosphorylation toward glucose consumption. Metabolomic and transcriptional analysis of heme-loaded macrophages revealed that glucose is funneled into the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), which is indispensable for efficient heme detoxification and required to maintain redox homeostasis. We demonstrate that the metabolic shift to the PPP is controlled by heme oxygenase-dependent generation of carbon monoxide. Finally, we show that PPP upregulation occurs in vivo in organ systems central to heme clearance and that PPP activity correlates with heme levels in mouse SCD. Together, our findings demonstrate that metabolic adaptation to heme detoxification in macrophages requires a shift to the PPP that is induced by heme-derived carbon monoxide, suggesting pharmacological targeting of macrophage metabolism as a novel therapeutic strategy to improve heme clearance in patients with hemolytic disorders.