A novel assay reveals delayed plasmin generation in plasma from mice fed a high-fat diet.
Proteomic and functional analyses suggest delayed plasmin generation results from a thrombomodulin- and TAFI-dependent mechanism.
Obesity is a prevalent prothrombotic risk factor marked by enhanced fibrin formation and suppressed fibrinolysis. Fibrin both promotes thrombotic events and drives obesity pathophysiology, but a lack of essential analytical tools has left fibrinolytic mechanisms affected by obesity poorly defined. Using a plasmin-specific fluorogenic substrate, we developed a plasmin generation (PG) assay that is sensitive to tissue plasminogen activator, α2-antiplasmin, active plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), and fibrin formation, but not fibrin crosslinking in mouse plasma. Compared to plasma from mice fed a control diet (CD), plasmas from mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) showed delayed PG and reduced PG velocity. Concurrent to impaired PG, HFD also enhanced thrombin generation (TG). The collective impact of abnormal TG and PG in HFD-fed mice produced normal fibrin formation kinetics but delayed fibrinolysis. Functional and proteomic analyses determined that delayed PG in HFD-fed mice was not due to altered levels of plasminogen, α2-antiplasmin, or fibrinogen. Changes in PG were also not explained by elevated PAI-1, since active PAI-1 concentrations required to inhibit the PG assay were 100-fold higher than circulating concentrations in mice. HFD-fed mice had increased circulating thrombomodulin, and inhibiting thrombomodulin or thrombin-activated fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) normalized PG, revealing a thrombomodulin- and TAFI-dependent antifibrinolytic mechanism. Integrating kinetic parameters to calculate the metric of TG/PG ratio revealed a quantifiable net shift toward a prothrombotic phenotype in HFD-fed mice. Integrating TG and PG measurements may define a prothrombotic risk factor in diet-induced obesity.